There is no doubt, plus – and especially – certainly positives, that our mental code is extremely organized. There are a great number of relationships within unmarried words away from a code therefore the significance ones words, respectively. Certainly linguists, such connections are called “semantic interactions”, “experience affairs” or “lexical affairs”. This type of semantic connections should be analysed and you may described for the most part, along with the second, 1st of those of these relations should be shown.
So you can render a short, important malfunction of your advanced, it ought to be said that there are a few studies on this subject topic. Although not, this report can only just is a few of them. Books which was put is present significantly less than point half a dozen, “List of Performs Quoted”. Endeavor delimitations simply have become generated in terms of detail is actually worried. Since this papers is just an incredibly quick little bit of look, the latest experts enjoys confined themselves to not ever go into excess outline, but alternatively just be sure to render an excellent survey of your own thing.
dos.step one Polysemy And you can Homonymy
Polysemy can be defined as “a term utilized in semantic data to mention so you can good lexical items with a selection of more definitions” (Amazingly 1997, 297). Crystal offers since analogy to own polysemy this new lexical goods “plain”, which has different meanings “clear”, “unadorned”, “obvious”, an such like.(ibid. Crystal).
Now, the situation you to appears having linguists is precisely how to separate polysemy off an alternative ambiguity, of homonymy. Amazingly describes homonymy because the “a phrase included in semantic investigation to refer so you can [several] lexical items which [affect] have the same function, but differ inside meaning” (Amazingly 1997, 185). Crystal’s instances listed below are “bear” and “ear”. “Bear” is determine a pet otherwise can have the definition regarding “to bring”, “ear” can make reference to your body or even corn (ibid. Crystal).
During these examples, homonymy talks http://www.datingranking.net/cs/facebook-dating-recenze/ about each other spoken and you may created variations, but it is and possible that the new name away from a couple lexemes is in one typical, in which particular case linguists do talk about limited homonymy otherwise heteronymy (ibid. Crystal). One could separate 2 kinds of limited homonymy:
– Homography: two lexical products have the same composed form, but differ when you look at the enunciation (a good example will be the one or two lexical items of “lead”, you to obvious [li:d] and you may meaning “to settle side”, one other noticable [led] and identifying a separate variety of steel). – Homophony: a couple lexical affairs have a similar pronunciation, however, differ from inside the spelling
(age.g. the 2 lexical activities “led” and you may “lead”, both of which can be obvious [led], the initial as being the prior stressful regarding “to guide”, aforementioned again identifying a separate version of metal).
two types From Ambiguity
Therefore, polysemy and homonymy might be famous away from one another of the present or lost relatedness involving the definitions that is allocated to a single phonological form. What is the key of count, ‘s the matter as to the the quantity this concept of “relatedness” will likely be given. This means that: just how do “relatedness” getting defined? When the an obvious and exact definition was considering, the entire problem would be fixed, for then experience regarding phonological versions whoever relatedness will likely be ended up might be called “homonymy”, whose relatedness cannot be proved was named “polysemy”. Yet not, given that goes so frequently in the area of semantics, one cannot simply provide a clear and you will indisputable concept of the term “relatedness”. There have been two first solutions to this dilemma, one supplied by historical semantics, additional by the synchronic semantics.
Historic semantics interprets the idea “relatedness” generally genetically and that talks away from polysemy in the event that a beneficial lexeme which have various other significance holds an equivalent etymological origins (Kastovsky 1982, 121). Examples is “game” into the a few significance “wildlife” and you may “lively hobby” or “funny” definition often “strange” or “amusing”. Both advice reveal lexemes whoever more significance have the same etymological sources and generally are hence interpreted because the polysemy because of the historic semantics.